Monday, August 15, 2011

Rubber plantations can be a profitable venture increments

At present it is so difficult to find a business opportunity that has long-term prospects and secure. I so remember when exactly the government of President Suharto New Order era of president Suharto has transmigration program, or equity pendudu. Approximately what is the relationship between migration with business opportunities, their relationship is created here will be a new settlement areas previously disuatu population is not inhabited area or the still small number of residents. at that time president Suharto gives people progaram nucleus (PIR) people who follow the transmigration program was given the land and plant seeds in the form of oil palm and rubber trees are also residences. The main objectives of the transmigration program is to empower people to have new revenue sources and reduce the number of poor due to the unavailability of the field effort in the area of ​​origin. Of course it turns out we feel the impact of benefits at this present moment in which people who participated transmigration has now had a decent life. Looking at the life of the successful resettlement of managing oil and rubber plantations are also many ordinary people are stimulated to invest into because of the current plantations of oil palm plantations and rubber into a commodity superior because it has a potential market price is quite high and is supported berdirianya processing factories diarea plantations encourage ordinary people to participate in investing in plantation areas. The following techniques of rubber cultivation 

To build the necessary management of rubber plantations and rubber cultivation technologies that include, the following activities: 
• Terms grow rubber plants 
• recommendation rubber clones 
• planting material / seeds 
• Preparation of the planting and cultivation 
• Maintenance of crop: weed control, fertilizing and disease control 
• Tapping / harvest 

1. Rubber Plant Growing Conditions 
Basically the rubber plants require the terms of the climatic conditions to support growth and soil conditions as the growth medium. 
a. Climate 
Areas suitable for growing rubber is in the zone between 150 and LS 150 LU. Beyond that somewhat hampered the growth of rubber plants that started production too late. 
Rubber plants require optimum rainfall between 2,500 mm to 4,000 mm / year, with rainy days ranges from 100 to. 150 HH / year. However, if the frequent rain in the morning, the production will be reduced. 
High places 
Basically the rubber plants grow optimally in the lowlands with an altitude of 200 m above sea level. Altitude> 600 m from the sea surface is not suitable for growing rubber trees. Optimum temperature required ranges from 25oC to 35oC. 
Wind speed is too fast in general are not good for rubber cultivation 
b. Ground 
Dry land for growing rubber plants in general require more physical properties of soil as compared to its chemical properties. This is due to chemical treatments to suit the requirement of land to grow rubber trees can be implemented more easily than with improved physical properties. 
Various types of land can grow crops in accordance with the terms good rubber young and old volcanic soil, even on peat soils <2 m. Volcanic soil has a fairly good physical properties, especially the structure, texture, sulum, depth of soil water, aeration and drainage, but its chemical properties in general less well because of low haranya content. Alluvial soil is usually quite fertile, but the physical properties, especially drainage and aerasenya poorly. Soil reaction ranges from pH 3.0 - pH 8.0 but does not fit at pH <3.0 and> pH 8.0. The properties of land suitable for rubber plants in general, among others: 
Sulum soil to 100 cm, there are no rocks and rock layers 
Aerase and adequate drainage 
Crumb texture of the soil, and can withstand water poreus 
The structure consists of 35% clay and 30% sand 
Land bergambut no more than 20 cm 
Enough nutrient NPK and micro nutrient deficiencies are not 
Reaction of soil with pH 4.5 - pH 6.5 
Slope <16% and 
Surface soil water <100 cm. 

2. Clones Rubber Recommendations 
Natural rubber prices improved at this time should be able to accelerate the momentum of reform and rejuvenation are less productive by using superior clones and cultivation of other technological improvements. The government has set a target of the development of Indonesia's natural rubber production by 3-4 million tons / year in 2025. Production targets can only be achieved when at least 85% of rubber plantation area (the people) are currently less productive successfully rejuvenated by 
using superior clones. 

3. Planting Material 
The most important thing in rubber planting the seeds / planting material, in this case a good planting material is derived from the rubber plant grafting. Preparation of planting materials dilakuka at least 1.5 years prior to planting. In terms of planting material, there are three components that need to be prepared, namely: rootstock (root stoct), entres / upper stem (budwood), and grafting (grafting) in preparation of planting materials. 

Planting rubber seedlings to be on time to avoid the high mortality rate in the field. Appropriate planting time is during the rainy season. Also be prepared workforce for the activities to the manufacture of a planting hole, unloading, transporting, and planting seedlings. Seedlings that have been dismantled should be planted and allowed a grace period of at least one night after the demolition. In more detail the preparation of rubber planting materials can be viewed Books grafting Sapta Bina Rubber Farming (1996, 2nd edition), or orders of Rubber Materials Management Booklet (2005) issued by the Research Institute for Sembawa, Rubber Research Centre. 

4. Planting Preparation and Planting 
In the implementation of the planting of rubber plants required various steps taken systematically from land clearing to planting. 
a. The opening of land (Land Clearing) 
Land to grow crops where the rubber must be clean of plant debris of logging slash, land clearing so that the schedule should be adapted to the planting schedule. Land clearing activities include: (a) clearing the bush, (b) felling of trees, (c) perecanaan and pruning, (d) pendongkelan root timber, (e) stacking and cleaning. Along with the clearing of land settlement is done in blocks, the arrangement of the streets of the garden, and the arrangement of drainage channels in the plantation. 
Arrangement of blocks. 
Garden land criss-crossed by the smallest unit and arranged into blocks measuring 10 -20 ha, every few blocks put together into one plot that has the same relative time of planting. 
Structuring Streets 
The road network should be established and implemented during the construction of new plants (year 0) and is associated with the structuring of land into crop blokblok. Road construction in flat areas and hilly with the guidelines can reach every area of ​​the smallest, with a maximum distance of bear as far as 200 m. Sedapatkan possibly the entire network superimposed / connected, so that the overall pattern is an effective road network. The width of the road adapted to the type / class of roads and means of conveyance to be used. 
Structuring Drainage Channels 
After erection is complete spacing, then the creation and arrangement of drainage (drain field) is implemented. Cross-sectional area adapted to the rainfall at a particular time unit, and consider factors infiltration and evaporation. All the excess water to drain field trenches passed on to the next reservoir flows into the drain (drain outlet). 
b. Land Preparation Planting 
In preparing the rubber plantation land is also required implementation of several activities that can systematically ensure the quality of the land in accordance with the requirements. Some steps include: 
Eradication of Imperata and other weeds 
On land that has been completed slash and slash and other land that has vegetation of weeds, made the eradication of weeds by using chemicals such as Round-up, Scoup, Dowpon or Dalapon. This activity was followed by the eradication of other weeds, either chemically or mechanically. 
Soil Processing 
With the goal of cost efficiency, processing of land for rubber planting can be implemented with minimum tillage systems, namely by making the bolt between the rows of one meter by 20 cm wide hoe. However, processing of mechanically ground to a specific area can be considered while maintaining the sustainability and soil fertility. 
Terracing / Map and Citadel / Piket 
In the area of ​​land that has a slope of more than 50 required terracing / contour plot of the system and into the slope about 150. This is intended to inhibit the possibility of erosion by rainwater. Terrace width ranged from 1.25 to 1.50 cm, depending on the degree of slope. For each of 60-10 trees (depending on the degree of slope) were made fort / pickets with the aim of preventing erosion on the surface of the map. 
Basically the water is for the erection menerai hole where the plant with plant spacing provisions as follows: a) In the area of ​​land is relatively flat / sloping (slope between 00-80) spacing is 7 mx 3 m (= 476 holes / ha) form the line straight following the East-West direction is 7 m and the North - South is a 3 m 

Preparation of Planting Holes 
The size of the hole for the plant made 60 cm x 60 cm top and 40 cm x 40 cm bottom with a depth of 60 cm. At the time of a hollow, upper soil (top soil) were placed on the left and the bottom soil (sub soil) placed on the right (Figure 3). Plant hole is left for 1 month before the rubber seedlings are planted. 
Planting LCC (Legume cover crops = LCC) 
LCC Planting is done before the start of rubber seedlings are planted in order to avoid the possibility of erosion, improve soil physical and chemical structure, reducing pengupan water, as well as to limit weed growth. 
c. Selection and Planting Seeds 
Selection of seedlings 
Before seeds are planted, first the selection of seeds to obtain planting material properties to own common good, among others: high producing, responsive to stimulation outcome, resistance to pests and leaf diseases and skin, as well as a good skin wound healing. Several conditions must be met seedlings ready for planting are among others: 
Rubber seedlings in polybags have an umbrella in half. 
Grafting eyes really well and has started to sprout 
Roots grow best riding and have lateral roots 
Free of fungal root disease (White Root Fungus). 

Needs seeds 
With a spacing of 7 mx 3 m (for slope), is required rubber seedlings for planting as many as 476 seeds, and reserve for stitching as many as 47 (10%) so that for every hectare garden takes as much as 523 rubber seedling stems. 

In general, rubber planting in the field carried out in the rainy season is between September to December where rainfall has been quite a lot, and rainy days have been more than 100 days. At the time of planting, ground cover holes used top soil mixed with fertilizer RP 100 grams per hole, in addition to fertilizing with urea 50 grams and SP - 36 of 100 grams as basal fertilizer. 

5. Plant Maintenance 
General maintenance done on the rubber plantations 
include weed control, fertilizing and disease eradication 
Weed control 
The area of ​​rubber plantations, both plants have not produced (TBM) and the plant already produces (TM) should be free of weeds such as reed, Mekania, Eupatorium, etc. so that plants can grow well. To achieve this, weeding in the first year is based on the age of the plant as follows: 
Fertilization programs 
In addition to the basic fertilizer that has been given at the time of planting, fertilizing program on an ongoing basis in rubber should be done with a balanced dose of twice a year. Fertilization schedule in which I semeseter in January / February and in the second half of July / August. A week before fertilization, gawangan first raked and cleaned the disc plants. Granting SP-36 is usually done two weeks ahead of urea and KCl. Programs and rubber plant fertilizer doses can generally be seen in the following table. 
Plant Disease Eradication 
Gum disease often cause economic losses in the rubber plantation. Losses resulting not only in the form of yield loss due to crop damage, but also the cost incurred in efforts to control. Therefore, control measures in an integrated and efficient in order to minimize losses from the disease needs to be done. Over 25 types of disease damage in rubber plantations. The disease can be classified based on the value of economic losses caused. Plant diseases commonly found in rubber plantations are: 
White root fungus (Rigidoporus microporus) 
White root disease caused by a fungus Rigidoporus microporus (Rigidoporus lignosus). These diseases cause damage to the plant roots. Symptoms on leaves look pale or yellow leaf tips and edges folded inward. Then the autumn leaves and twigs into dead ends. There are times when formed young leaves, or flowers and fruits earlier. On plant roots seem ill threads of white mushrooms and a bit thick (rizomorf). Mushrooms sometimes forming a cap-like fruit bodies yellowish orange at the base of the plant roots. In severe attacks, the plant roots to rot so easily uprooted plants and dead. Death often propagate plants on neighboring plants. Transmission of the fungus usually takes place through root contacts into tunggultunggul healthy plants, the remaining root or roots of plants diseased plants. White root disease is common in the age of 1-5 years of rubber planting, especially in the bush, many of the remaining stump or roots of plants and in loose soil or sandy 
6. Tapping / Harvest 
The production of latex from rubber trees in addition determined by the state soil and plant growth, superior clones, are also influenced by the techniques and tapping management. If all three criteria can be met, it is expected that the rubber plant at the age of 5-6 years have met the criteria for tapping mature. Criteria, among others, when mature tapping girth circumference at a height of 130 cm from the ground have achieved a minimum of 45 cm. If 60% of the population of plants have met these criteria, then the crop is harvested acreage. 
High aperture tapping 
High aperture tapping, either by the system leads down (Down ward tapping system, DTS) as well as tapping into the above system (Upward tapping system, UTS) is 130 cm measured from the ground. 
The exposure time of tapping. 
The exposure time of tapping is 2 times a year ie, on (a) the beginning of the rainy season (June) and (b) the beginning of the intensification of lead (in October). Therefore, it does not automatically mature plants that have been intercepted and directly tapped, but must wait on the arrival time. 
The slope of the slice tapping 
In general, the early lead, starting with a wedge angle of 400 leads from the horizontal line. On the bottom lead system, a large angle will become smaller slices of up to 300 when approaching "elephant foot" (the former linkage grafting). In the system leads to the top, the corner will be getting bigger slices. 
The transition of plants from the TMB to the TM 
Theoretically, if supported by a healthy condition and good growth, plants have met the criteria of a mature rubber tapping at the age of 5-6 years. With reference to these standards, means starting at the age of 6 years of rubber can be said to have a generating plant or TM. 
Tapping System 
Today tapping system has been developed by combining low-intensity tapping with Ethrel stimulation during the cycle tappers. For rubber, given the socio-economic conditions of farmers, it is recommended using conventional tapping system.
hopefully by applying rubber cultivation with maximum can give you an advantage in investing in this business
Sources: Anwar, Rubber Research Centre, Medan MiG Corp. 2001. 


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